The Arab influence is more evident in the southern part of the peninsula. Spain – A Companion to Spanish Studies. Juan Castilla Brazales, professor of Arabic Studies at the Escuela de Estudios Árabes in Granada, discussed Arab-Muslim influence on the Iberian Peninsula for the Department of Spanish and Portuguese. The medieval ‘hocket’ is a combination of notes and pauses and is derived from the Arabic iqa’at.”. This enraged him but one night his feeling for the music and singing, coming from the surrounding buildings, changed. Islam inherited this rich poetic-music legacy and when their armies conquered much of the then known world, they took this music with them. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1965. Arabic influence on the Spanish language overwhelmingly dates from the Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula between 711 and 1492. All this came about, in the main, as a result of the 900 years the Arabs were in Spain – first as conquerors then as conquered. l980. From the deserts of the Arabian Peninsula, the Arabs brought their mawwals and qasidas (deep songs and epic poems), elements that were absorbed into the flamenco songs. Arabic music or Arab music (Arabic: الموسيقى العربية , romanized: al-mūsīqā al-ʿArabīyah) is the music of the Arab world with all its diverse music styles and genres. Two of his friends took good care of him but at night when he tried to rest the loud noises of musical instruments and vulgar singing, from the neighbouring homes, kept him awake and increased his misery. Further, the Arabs introduced into Europe frets, from the Arabic fard (notch), bars on the fingerboards of stringed instruments to regulate the fingering. Farmer in the Legacy of Islam: “The Arabs brought to Europe their lutes, pandores, and guitars, with the place of the notes fixed on the finger-board by means of frets.”. The contributions made by the Arabs to Spanish music, song and dance permeate the life of modern Spain. And all this time there had been no sound of a human voice. Today, the old Arab embossing techniques are still in use. The Umayyad Dynasty, which had been overthrown in Damascus, was re-established in the Iberian Peninsula by ‘Abd al-Rahman I. London: Macmillian Publishers Ltd., Vol. This thrilling vociferation appeared to inspire the fiery black-haired women dancers as they stamped the stage floor with wild uncontrolled passion. Closely associated with the haunting music of the Arabs are the fiery, dances of Spain the most well-known being the flamenco. The beat of the rapid handclapping in flamenco is a carbon copy of the clapping in the folk melodies and dances of the Arabian Peninsula. Brill, 1981. The history of Spanish music continued to evolve with the dawning of the Renaissance period. The South of Spain. From this city, the kings of Castile and Aragon would engage Arab musicians and singers to entertain their courts with the songs of muwashshahat and zajal, accompanied by musicians playing the ajabeba, canón, rabel and añafil. The well-known 12th century poet from Cordova, Ibn Quzman, used to boast that his zajal was sung as far away as the eastern Arab world. But the haunting melodies of Arab music were not lost. Throughout the ranks of the travelling public in the Western world the name of Spain, especially Andalusia, is synonymous with dark haired beauties, flowers, splendid processions, light-hearted gaiety, the halo of enchanted patios and romance. They established music schools that could be compared to the best in the cities of the Arab East. (ed.) These two types of song and music were widely sung and appreciated by both the Muslims and Christians in all parts of the Iberian Peninsula and spread throughout the Arabic-speaking world of his time. 13 and l7. A 13th century Arab author, Zakariya al-Qazwini, describing a village he visited in Muslim Spain, wrote that almost every inhabitant was interested in literature and music and many peasants were capable of improvising poetry and song. Watt, W.M. A Short History of Spanish Music. The Latin dialect that eventually became Spanish was highly influenced by the invasion of the Arabic-speaking Moors in 711. The zajal was the colloquial form of the muwashshahat, written and sung in vulgar Arabic. Emil Naumann in his History of Music notes “…we cannot fail….to be struck with the remarkable similarity which the melodies of the Koran bear to the responses and chants of the Catholic liturgy.”. The History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain. Source: CNN The talents of the well-trained Moorish musicians and singers were known throughout all of southern Europe. A number of music historians have written that the passionate songs of the flamenco are only the ancient religious chants and lyrics of the Middle East. Contrary to stereotypical western belief, Arabia was not simply a land of barren deserts, but rather a region where towns and cities flourished. The muwashshahat were written and sung in classical Arabic but the last verse always ended with two or four lines written in the Romance or the aljamiado language of the Christians and summarised the entire meaning of the poem. Some have been evolved to fit into the modern age, but most are as they were when the Arabs were a part of Spanish history. To cite Enrique Sordo in his Moorish Spain: “….an inner room in an Andalusian tavern; glasses of golden wine, a guitar; a voice…. Under this culture-oriented dynasty, poetry, music and singing reached dazzling heights. The guitar, to whose music the singers and dancers perform, is the qithara of the Arabs. The music of the Arabian Peninsula had a rich background. In the cantigas de Santa María compiled by Alfonso the Wise, the musical form of the zajal is clearly evident. Among the other Arab influenced handicrafts in Andalusia is Seville’s production of religious embroidery by the use of gold and silver threads with silks and velvets – an inheritance from the artisans in Damascus. To the music schools of Arab Andalusia in these golden years, students came from other European countries to study, then returned to their lands, influenced by the music of the Arabs – the finest in the world at that time. Rodney Gallops further maintains in his A Book of the Basques: “The most important legacy in the field of music left to Europe by the Arabs is mensural music. From the very beginning, these entertainers, not only sung Arabic poetry in its authentic and sentimental state but also, in its method and construction. In later centuries these cantigas were to have a great impact on all European music. By the 16th Century the Renaissance brought the influences of Italy. From these noise-filled evenings of merriment, the Spanish language was enriched by many words. The zajal and muwashshahat type of verse and song were the most famous. To hear Andalusia described as ‘The majestic Córdoba of the Caliphs’, Al-Andalus – land of splendour’ and ‘Al-Andalus – Queen of the world’, is a reminder that these words are only a reflection of the accomplishments of Arab Spain’s sons who virtually made the country an ‘earthly paradise’. His songs and music were widely sung and appreciated by both the Muslims and Christians in all parts of the Iberian Peninsula. Impressive in a traditional black suit, ruffled shirt and high-heeled boots, his penetrating songs took us on a journey to the haunting lands of the East. As to the shout of Ole ! Stanley Sadie. The lutes, pandores and guitars with their accompanying songs were in a few centuries considered to be as Spanish as the soil of Spain itself. Although it is known as a gypsy dance, the flamenco has no historic connection with these artistic people. Although now sung in Spanish, there is no doubt that its origins go back to the Arabic songs of the Moors. The centuries have not eroded his fame but rather solidified his greatness. Today, his poetry is still sung by famous singers across the whole of the modern Arab world. Játiva, a city in eastern Spain, even after the Christian occupation in the 13th and 14th centuries continued to be famous for its musicians and singers. The canas, jaleo, polos, and tiranas of the flamenco; the zarabanda danced in Spain during the 16th century; the zorongo dance with its Andalusian music; the jota from the Arabic khata (to step); the sequidillas; the fandango; the folias; the sevillanas; and the bulerias, all have been influenced to some extent by the music, song and dance of the Moors. Before the close of the 12th century measured song was unknown to the Europeans; but under the name iqa’at or rhythm it had been known to the Arabs even in the 7th century. Muslim musicians flourished at the courts of the kings of Castile and Aragon. Burckhardt, T.’, Moorish Culture in Spain, Translated by A. Jaffa. Seville rang with song and music. Near Jaén, the pottery of Úbeda is well known for its handsome ewers and in the province of Malaga, the clay artisans are famous for their Barros Malagueños, small figurines representing popular scenes and characters. As the Christian population accepted the lyric models of the Muslims, Arab songs grew more popular throughout the peninsula. To the music schools of Arab Andalusia in these golden years, students came from other European countries to study, then returned influenced by the music of the Arabs – the finest in the world of that time. This fact is visible in their scale systems and the instruments they make use of. ... "Arabic letters, Arabic phrases. Like his brethren, the lute players in the Arab lands, he is, at times, a spontaneous composer. The 900 years the Arabs spent in Spain, first as conquerors then as the conquered have left their mark. London & New York: Johnson Reprint Co., 1964. The jaleo, which is another intricate component of the flamenco, has a strong connection with the Arabs living in the countries edging the Arabian Gulf. However, as time wore on and the Islamic world was established on a permanent basis, the love and appreciation of poetry and music surged forward, incorporating the old and formulating the new. No different than the captivating cry of a Bedouin singing a mawwal (emotional ballad) in the open desert, it gave me a feeling of exhilaration. The tile craftsmen of Triana, near Seville, as in the Arab era, are renowned for producing tiles in exquisite colours. Spanish Music [the Canary Islands are not show in this map] ... (música andalusí) is the term use to define the classical Arabic music of Medieval Al-Andalus, which was the name given to Muslim-occupied Spain as well as current North African classical Arabic music. ), rifirrafe rafrafah squabble or fight, zalagarda zaghradah racket or noisy, zambra samar din or uproar, zaragata zaghradah brawl or quarrel. This type of verse did not disappear for today in Egypt and Lebanon, zajal continues to be a popular folk art. In Moorish Spain it was later modified by Greek music and song giving birth to the Arab-Andalusian … According to travellers from other Arab lands, Muslim Spain, in that enlightened era, was a land filled with poets and musicians. Andalus: Spain Under the Muslims. Seman, K .1. Some historians indicate that this epithet was likely applied to Andalusian persecuted farmers who fled to the mountains. Our family has been producing these inlaid goods for hundreds of years.”. With this rich background of music in Arab Spain, it is not strange that innumerable types of music, song and dance developed. Sarabande, originally, a dance considered disreputable in 16th-century Spain, and, later, a slow, stately dance that was popular in France.Possibly of Mexican origin or perhaps evolved from a Spanish dance with Arab influence that was modified in the New World, it was apparently danced by a double line of couples to castanets and lively music. In their dances, music, singing and handicrafts, the inhabitants of southern Spain, and to a lesser extent those to the north, still retain a good amount of Moorish influences. Despite the traumatic experience, Latin music is one of the positive outcomes that came from that process. The well-known 12th century poet from Cordova, Ibn Guzman, used to boast that his zajal was sung as far away as the eastern Arab world. A year earlier, I had been in Damascus, Syria’s capital, and seen the same goods being inlaid, virtually in identical fashion. It was purely instrumental, without the human voice. Even though elements of Greek, Indian, Persian and other Oriental music have been absorbed by this fiery spectacle, the Arab influences have been the most profound. These include everyday words such as jabón (soap), arroz , (rice) and alcalde (mayor). One night I awoke after dozing a little, and noticed that the tumult of odious voices and turbulent tunes had calmed down, leaving only a breath of sound, tranquil and lovely. This is quite evident in the field of music. In that age of tawa’if kings, musicians and singers were honoured in every city state as never before in history. From the very beginning, these entertainers, not only sung Arabic poetry in its authentic and sentimental state but also, in its method and construction. Government In government the Arabs developed free enterprise, the national flag, tax collection and the system of law and order. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1973. Although not supported by etymologies in most dictionaries, D.E. As flamenco artists and critics began to explore the elements of gitano performance, they rediscovered the rich Arab influence in flamenco. Al-Farabi defined rhythms, Ibn Rushd wrote Kitab al-Musiqi al-Kabir, which was one of the greatest books on music ever published and Ibn Bajjah wrote a book which is lost but is said to have rivalled Ibn Rushd’s. Stanwood Cobb in his Islamic Contributions to Civilization, discusses the effect of Arab cultural influences on Spanish music: “The feeling, tempo and the lilt of Spanish music is more akin to Arabic than to European music, and the guitar, the most ‘Spanish’ of all instruments, was an Arab invention. Livermore, A. Arabic influence in the region did not end with language. Later Arabic was abandoned for the languages of southern Europe but the Arabic format remained. Well might the church leaders have feared Arab music and song for even in the Christian religion the Arab influence was to leave its mark. It is said that the majority of Alfonso’s cantigas were direct translations of Arab zajal verses. Government In government the Arabs developed free enterprise, the national flag, tax collection and the system of law and order. It is said that when al-Mahdi, one of the last caliphs in Cordova, entertained, the sound of a hundred lutes and a hundred flutes would fill the air. During their centuries in the Iberian Peninsula, the Arabs developed innumerable types of music, song and dance. No less important is what the Arabs left in the handicrafts of the country. The voice of the singer seemed to hypnotize his audience into a state of ecstasy. One of these groups is the Moors, the Arab and Berber Muslims who conquered parts of present-day Spain in the 8th century and lived there for almost 800 years. From that point on, the Catholic Church began its heavy influence on Spanish politics, history, customs and … This has added much to the rich culture of Spain and by way of Spain to the Spanish-speaking Latin-American countries. I could not believe my eyes when, during my first trip to Andalusia, while strolling through the Albaicín Quarter, still known as Arab Quarter of Granada, I stumbled across an artisan shop producing exquisite hand-inlaid wooden products. There is no doubt that the music of the West has been influenced by the rhythms of Arab melodies. He became famous as his type of verse spread throughout the Arabic-speaking world of his time. When discussing Spanish folk songs such as the lyrics of the flamenco, N. B. Adams in the Heritage of Spain, writes that there is decidedly something Oriental, at least un-European about simple melodies heavily adorned, with distinctive rhythms. From the troubadours and their Arabic songs, the serenading of Spanish lovers was born. It was in the Hijaz that rhythm and melody of song were developed into artistic and elegant singing. Other Andalusian wood artisans turn out fine musical instruments, concentrating on guitars, and attractive furniture, like the Mudéjar-style cabinets made in Capileira. Their production of large bowls, casseroles, ewers, figurines, jars, pitchers and plates are much in demand for decorative purposes and in the tourism industry. All these trades, which make Andalusia unique in Europe, almost without exception, are an Arab legacy. The Heritage of Spain. An influence on the blues . Finally I withdrew to my room, thanking God, as though I had come out of a great trouble and were no longer ill or suffering’.”. Even in its modernized form the flamenco still had its enchantment. London: Faber and Faber, 1974. Visitors roaming this delightful part of southern Spain searching for these attributes will be able to find them in abundance in Seville, Cordova and Granada – three of Andalusia’s most fascinating cities. There is no doubt that the music of the West is saturated with the rhythms of Arab melodies and the future will reveal much of that which is now hidden. It is believed that the zajal gave rise to the villancico, a type of Spanish Christmas carol and from the zajal and muwashshahat the Spanish cantigas developed. Gore Ouseley (ed). Latin music is the result of a complex social and historical process that took place in the Americas after the arrival of Columbus. Lowe, A. In The Heritage of Spain, Nicholson B. Adams writes about this music-loving city. Do you plan on being with family in person this Thanksgiving? How will it end?’ Scarcely was the question asked before there came the sound of a woman’s voice, clear and beautiful. Cobb, Stanwood. Arnold, T. and Guillaume, A. Legacy of Islam. Among the top skills being revived is the hand-making of ceramic and pottery. About 4,000 words of Arabic origin or influenced by Arabic are found in the regional varieties of Spanish, which can be heard if you are to travel around the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula. When the Spaniards occupied Granada, the last city held by the Moors, Arab music and singing did not die but actually flourished. Flamenco's Middle East influences Musician Amir John Haddad, or "El Amir'',shows how the flamenco of Andalusia relates to the music of North Africa and the Middle East. She sang and sang, and I, hidden above, could watch without being seen. The thrilling voices, stamping feet, lithe young bodies with their teasing graceful sway and clapping hands still seduced most of the audience. Perhaps the easiest way to see this influence in Spanish is in the simple words spoken every day. Ibn al-‘Arabi wrote about and taught aspects of music which dealt with mysticism and Ibn Sab’in wrote Kitab al-Adwar al-Mansub (Book of Related Musical Modes). Much to the mountains F. 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