The term “Moor” comes from the Latin word Maurus, which referred to the people who inhabited northwestern Africa. After the end of Moorish Spain in 1492, this musical tradition migrated to the large cities of North Africa, such as Fez, Tlemcen, Algiers, Constantine, and Tunis. The couplets are usually sad or melancholic, a type of longing, etc. When We Ruled Spain Tour Reviews Please find below feedback from the evaluation forms from delegates who attended the ‘When We Ruled Spain Tour’ in October 2011. The Moorish period was one of remarkable development for science and architecture in Spain, and the eight hundred years of Islamic influence also left a rich legacy of Moorish architecture. Moors bring the guitar to Spain as well as singing styles--even the name "flamenco." Astronomy, Geography, and Mathematics. The flow of the book was fine in my opinion. The invaders are generally called “Moors,” irrespective of their country of origin.*. Ziryab was a natural born leader and pioneer. The Alhambra, a Moorish palace and fortress in Granada, Spain, was described by poets as a "pearl set in emeralds." It subsequently spread throughout the Islamic world, by the ninth century probably reaching Spain, which became the first European country to make silk. IMPORTANT: To refine track results, adjust the filter and/or sort options below. Traditional music found in Extremadura includes secular and religious songs and dances such as jotas, perantones, pasacalles, alboradas, toques procesionales (processional music), ofertorios, charrás, pindongos, tonadas festivas, alboradas and toreras. Musical genres include: pasacáis or pasacalles, muñeires, muliñeira or molinera, rondes, saltón, alborada, marcha, fandango, jota or xota, and habanera. Royal Alcázar of Seville. Moorish music was later incorporated in flamenco, and Moorish craftsmanship also survived and can be readily discerned in many a souvenir that entices the modern-day tourist. Under the direction of the Moors, rice, sugarcane, pomegranates, cotton, bananas, oranges, lemons, dates, and figs were cultivated. But the impact of Moorish culture was to remain. Music was also affected by the Muslim presence. I will not get into detail about their empire in this article. and was gradually conquered by Muslim armies composed of Berbers, or North African tribesmen, and Arabs who later formed the ruling class. The 7th-8th-century Muslim forces of the Middle East espoused both mobility and tactical prowess, with their manpower mainly drawn from the already urbanized tribes of the Syrian heartland. Many of these crops would later be taken to the Americas by Spanish and Portuguese settlers. In Avicenna’s Canon of Medicine, a medical encyclopedia of the 11th century, we find the following sound advice: “Experience shows that nursing at the mother’s breast is an important protective factor against diseases.”. In Cuba, Spanish influences mixed with African elements gave birth to the Cuban bolero, a very slow 4/4 rhythm, accompanied by maracas and bongos. Soon Moorish Spain disintegrated into 23 city-states or taifas, which over the following centuries were gradually absorbed by the feudal kingdoms of Spanish Christendom from the north. Our numerical system also owes much to Islamic mathematicians who, by the eighth century, were employing what are today known as Arabic numerals, together with the zero and the decimal point, all of which were a considerable improvement on the former Roman system of numerals by letters (I=1, V=5, X=10, L=50, C=100, M=1,000). Although the Islamic conquerors usually did not propagate their religion by force, the new faith gradually won over not only the pagans but most of those claiming to be Christian in the Middle East and North Africa, as well as many in Spain. However, as the Umayyad Caliphate expanded, the forces of the frontier regions were composed mostly of the mawalis (clients) – basically voluntarily-converted adherents of Islam from the non-Arab background, like the Persians in the Khorasan regi… The considerable impact of Moorish culture on Western Europe can readily be seen by the many words from diverse fields in English (and other European languages) that are derived from Arabic: algebra, zero, alcohol, alkali, lemon, orange, sugar, adobe, alcove, tariff, magazine, jar, mattress, sofa. The Moorish empire included most of Spain and Portugal; the Moors attempted to invade France as well, but were halted by Charles Martel. North African horses were crossed with the Iberian steeds to produce what has been called the oldest recorded breed in the world, the magnificent Andalusian. The bolero parado is a type of bolero from the Balearic Islands (Spain). Other Oriental innovations such as the windmill and the use of gunpowder also found their way into Europe, apparently by means of this Islamic “transmission belt.”. After the end of Moorish Spain in 1492, this musical tradition migrated to the large cities of North Africa, such as Fez, Tlemcen, Algiers, Constantine, and Tunis. As an example, compare MCMLXXXVIII with the Arabic-based system—1988! The leisurely ox was replaced by the mule, the ass, and the horse. These advances, together with the adoption of the triangular sail used for generations by Arab dhows, were to be important contributions to the great voyages of discovery in the 15th century. Moorish Spain, if no worse than the other Muslim-controlled societies of its time, was certainly no better. The Moors were the nomadic inhabitants of the North African continent. Spanish and Moorish Fashions Paperback – July 31, 2003 by Tom Tierney (Author) 3.5 out of 5 stars 9 ratings Moorish architecture has specific elements which not only carry on into the music of the time, but also became an inspiration to painters of Spain’s Golden Age and were taken up again in music, poetry and art of the 19th and 20th centuries. Eventually, the Moors were expelled from Spain. From all parts of Europe and beyond they come, not only to enjoy the peninsula’s innumerable sun-drenched beaches but also to soak up Spanish culture. Boabdil, the last Nasrid King handed over the keys of the city of Granada to the Catholic Monarchs, Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon, on January 2, 1492 . What happened to them? Boleros are popular in Spain and Spanish-speaking America. When the Arabs conquered a large part of Asia Minor, they found that the silk-making process had already been developed there on a limited scale because of previous contact with China. Known in Arabic as al-Andalus, which is the origin of “Andalusia,” Spain was ruled at first from Damascus, but in the tenth century it became independent when the emir of Córdoba pronounced himself caliph, or head of state. The recovery of Toledo from the Moors by Catholic King Alfonso VI of León in 1085 was crucial in this respect. Traditional groups in the Alta Extremadura (Upper Extremadura) use the format of gaita (a three hole flute, not the bagpipe), tamboril (drum) and vocals. The two best known musical genres from Spain are Flamenco and Celtic music, although Spain has many other musical styles and dances throughout its mainland and island regions. Granada was thus the site of Moorish Spain’s final, flamboyant cultural flowering, helped by the refugees fleeing from former Muslim strongholds. Because of the labors of these translators, Arabic works such as Avicenna’s Canon of Medicine became standard textbooks, sometimes for centuries, in many European universities. Spain is located in southwestern Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay, Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Portugal, and Pyrenees Mountains, southwest of France. ... Moorish music was later incorporated in flamenco, and Moorish craftsmanship also survived and can be readily discerned in many a souvenir that entices the modern-day tourist. The Moors introduced earliest versions of several instruments, including the Lute or el oud, the guitar or kithara and the Lyre. Discover The Moorish castles Spain A succession of various landscapes and bright white villages, Andalusia also has another aspect to it: the Moorish castles that can be observed along the Spanish-Portuguese border, between the Sierra Morena to the north and the Sierra Nevada to the south. There are tons of powerful booksout there that you can read to learn about the “Moorish Empire”. Asturias is a region in northern Spain. Arroró – Spanish lullaby, also found in Spanish-speaking America. The Arabs—A Bridge Between East and West. Medicine. Bolero Viejo (old bolero) is a type of bolero from Spain. Sorry, there was an error loading the video. The university was a celebrated center of learning, and the city boasted a public library containing 400,000 volumes. How did they come to influence Spain to such a large extent? Reportedly, a Chinese prisoner captured by the Arabs taught them the art of making paper from rags. For this reason, Spanish traditional music has a lot of structural elements in common with the sounds of northern Africa. Al-Andalus is the name given to the Iberian Peninsula when it was under Muslim rule. 1 (2014): 27–55. A notable geographical and astronomical work, written by al-Idrisi who studied in Córdoba, appeared in the 12th century. Calvario means calvary in Spanish. The muñeira is accompanied by gaita (bagpipe), tamboril (drum) or redoblante, pandereta (tambourine), pandero (frame drum), bombo, charrasco and sometimes conchas (sea shells), which are also known as cunchas or vieiras (scallop shells). During the hundred years that followed the death of the prophet Muhammad in 632 C.E., his ardent followers created an Islamic empire that stretched from the Indus River in the East to the Pyrenees in the west. 3 (2007): 863–886. The dance has a lot in common with the mainland Spanish fandango. Agriculture. The mixture of Moorish and Christian music may be the forerunner of today's flamenco music. Manufactured in Damascus by the end of the eighth century, it swiftly replaced papyrus throughout the Islamic empire. Especially during the period when Christendom’s kingdoms in northern Spain were gradually incorporating the Muslim states to the south, Moorish Spain served as an intermediary between East and West, facilitating the diffusion of Oriental culture, science, and technology throughout Europe and beyond. Directory of Spanish musicians involved with traditional Spanish folk music, flamenco or world music: Eva Tejedor MierFelpeyuHeviaTejedorXuacu Amieva, Beselch RodríguezDomingo Rodriguez “El Colorao”, AljibeEspliegoLa MusgañaMaría SalgadoTradere, Agustin HenkeAlonso Núñez Heredia – “El Purili”Antonio LosadaAntonio MalenaAntonio Reyes MontoyaArcángelBernarda de UtreraCarlos PiñanaCamarón de la IslaCapullo De JerezCarles BenaventCarmen LinaresCepillo (Ángel Sánchez)ChambaoChicueloDaniel CasaresDavid CarmonaDavid de JacobaDiego AmadorDiego CarrascoDiego “El Cabrillero”Diego ‘El Cigala’Dolores La AgujetaDuquendeEl CabreroEl ChocolateEl Indio GitanoEl PeleEl PolacoEl PotitoEl TortaEnrique De MelchorEsperanza FenandezEstrella MorenteEzequiel BenitezFernando De La MorenaFernando TerremotoGuadianaGerardo NúñezIsrael FernándezJosé Antonio RodríguezJosé Jiménez Abadía, El ViejínJerónimo MayaJorge PardoJosé MeneseJosé MercéJuan Habichuela NietoKiki MorenteLa Barberia del SurLa Niña de los PeinesLa Paquera de JerezLa SusiLela SotoLucky LosadaManolo FrancoManolo SanlucarManuel FloresManuel Soto MonjeManzanitaMaría José LlergoMaria TerremotoMarina HerediaMario EscuderoMarta HerediaMayte MartinMiguel Angel CortésMiguel Poveda Niña PastoriNiño de PuraNiño JoselePaco de AmparoPaco de LuciaPaco FernándezPaco PeñaPaco SotoPedro Heredia Reyes, Pedro El GranainoPepe HabichuelaPitingoRafael RiqueniRamón El PortuguésRamón MontoyaRancapino ChicoRaul RodriguezRay HerediaRazón de SonRicardo MiñoRosario Lazo Montoya “Reina Gitana”Segundo FalcónTomás de PerrateTomatitoVicente AmigoVicente Soto “Sordera”, Chano DomínguezChico PerezDiego AmadorDorantes Maria Toro Pedro Ricardo Miño Sergio Monroy, Anxo LorenzoBerrogüettoCamerata MeigaCarlos NúñezCitaniaChouteiraCristina PatoDoaFía na RocaLeiliaMatto CongrioMercedes PeonMilladoiroMuxicasNa LúaRodrigo RomaníSusana SeivaneUxiaXosé Manuel Budiño, Amparo SanchezAna AlcaideAriadna CastellanosBenjamin EscorizaBuikaCanteca de MacaoEa!Eduardo NieblaEfrén LópezelbichoJavier PaxariñoKetamaLa Bruja GataL’Ham de FocManuel ImanMártires del CompásOjos de BrujoPata NegraRadio TarifaTito Alcedo, Your Connection to traditional and contemporary World Music, including folk, roots, global music, ethno and crosscultural fusions, Exquisite Pieces Rooted in Tradition on the Chapman Stick, Mikolajki Folkowe Festival, Free Online Polish Folk Concerts, MG ALBA Scots Trad Music Awards announces 2020 Hall of Fame Inductees, Impeccable Flute and Irresistible Brazilian Beats, New Book, Music Stories from the Cosmic Barrio. Jun 20, 2017 - Explore Brian McGee's board "Moorish", followed by 148 people on Pinterest. His influences were predominantly Greek, and yet he was an original thinker, and recorded some of the first details about the early music of the Christian church. Visitors can hear Spaniards unwittingly invoke Allah, using the common idiomatic expression, “ojalá,” which originally was wa-sa Alláh, or “would to Allah.”, Islam—‘Transmission Belt for Technology’, The Moorish occupation of Spain was to have enduring consequences for the rest of Europe as well. New instruments and melodies emerged in the territory, such as the guitar and flamenco. Spain’s capital, Madrid has one of the largest and best Flamenco scenes in the country in terms of artists, nightclubs, concerts and festivals. Islam arrived in that region with the arrival of the Moors during the 8 th century AD, and succeeded in conquering almost the entire peninsula in less than a decade. They have been captivated by the sights and sounds of Moorish Spain. Islamic scholars literally heeded the admonition of their prophet, “Look for wisdom, albeit found in China.” Some of the new technology did indeed come from China. Other Spanish musical genres: chotis (Madrid), ensalada, fandango, farruca, sardana, sevillanas (Seville), verdiales (Malaga). Variations include muñeira do Espantallo, muñeira ribeiriña, muñeira carballesa and muñeira redonda. The muñeira has been adopted by many contemporary Galician folk groups and recreated with new arrangements. Al-Andalus (Arabic: الأَنْدَلُس ) was the name of the Iberian Peninsula during the Muslim rule, it is used by modern historians as an umbrella term for the former Islamic states in Iberia. Even more important was the discovery of how to produce paper. Arrolo – Spanish lullaby from the Galicia region. In this article about the Moors, I will only share a quick overview of their rise and fall. When listening to the haunting music of flamenco, admiring the Andalusian stallions in local fiestas, or surveying the views from a Moorish embattlement, discerning visitors perceive something different in Spanish culture. No other European country boasts such a unique melting pot of musical elements, each plucked from the various cultures of Spain's past. An international panel of scholars and musicians presents lectures on how Jewish and Muslim communities across the Middle East have adopted and shared musical traditions whose origins lie in medieval ‘Moorish Spain’ – known in Arabic as al-Andalus and in Hebrew as Sepharad – (illustrated with videos and recordings). Folia – Dance and rhythm from the Canary Islands. A Spanish / … When it comes to Spanish food, Moorish customs He perhaps is most famous in musical history for declaring that it was not possible to notate sounds, an assertion which revealed his ignorance of the notational system of ancient Greece, suggesting that this knowledge had been lost with the fall of the Roman Empire in the west. From then the Moors ruled Spain for 800 years allowing African royals and other leaders to influence many aspects of Spanish society. Visitors to Spain's Andalusia Region can explore some of the most well-preserved, historically integral, and culturally relevant examples of Moorish architecture in all of the Iberian Peninsula. It was able to do so, without losing its spirit, going on to conquer new and greater audiences. Flamenco was born in Andalusia and is also very popular in Extremadura and Murcia. Musical instruments used include the flamenco guitar, the gaita rociera (also known as flauta rociera or pito rociero), tamboril, castanets, laúd, gaita gastoreña, cajón flamenco and bandurria. View Images. Spain itself was invaded in 711 C.E. When Roman culture was dominant, it brought with it the music and ideas of Ancient Greece, whereby the reciting of epic poetry and folk music played an integral role. But who exactly were the Moors? Granada, the last Moorish kingdom, was conquered in 1492, and the Moors were expelled from the peninsula. Arab Andalusian (música andalusí) is the term use to define the classical Arabic music of Medieval Al-Andalus, which was the name given to Muslim-occupied Spain as well as current North African classical Arabic music. As the Roman Empire declined, Spain was taken over by the Visigoths - originally from Eastern Europe - who ruled from the sixth to the eighth centuries. Also during the tenth century, the Great Mosque of Córdoba was finally completed. The Moorish legacy can still be seen in modern Spain. Surgical instruments were surprisingly similar to ones in use today. Andalusian musical genres include Flamenco, folk dances such as sevillanas (Seville), verdiales (Malaga), seguidilla and Flamenco-rooted rock known as rock andaluz (Andalusian rock). Men and women who participate in pilgrimages dance it in couples. But in the year 711, Roderick, the Visigoth king of southern Spain, was defeated by advancing armies of Moors, from North Africa. Moorish architecture is the articulated Islamic architecture of northern Africa and parts of Spain and Portugal, where the Moors were dominant between 711 and 1492. So it is that, wherever the tourist may wander, the sights and sounds of modern Spain may well be the echoes of this bygone civilization whose glory has passed but whose legacy to Spain and, indeed, to the world is remarkable. It comes as no surprise that the evolution of Spanish music is every bit as extensive and diverse as Spain's history. At first all this knowledge circulated in Arabic, a language unknown to most European scholars. It has been described as the “most beautiful Moslem temple in the world.”. As an educator, my primary goal is preserving cultural dance and history, while promoting a positive and healthy body image for women and young girls. Arin arin – Ancient circle dance from Bilbao, in Spain’s Basque Country. Young noblemen from Christendom’s feudal kingdoms to the north received their education at the Moorish courts, and wealthy women from France sent to Córdoba for their most elegant attire. Early in the eleventh century, the Umayyad dynasty came to an end, and there began a series of assassinations, uprisings, and feuds. Expelled from Spain some 500 years ago, the Moors left behind a lasting heritage still observed in the buildings, the music, and even the animals of Spain. The hospital of Córdoba was a renowned medical school, the first of its kind in Europe, and its surgeons enjoyed international repute. Arrullos are sung by mothers or nannies while holding the baby in their arms, or when they are rocking the baby in a cradle to sleep. Another Moor, a citizen of Toledo, published astronomical tables and invented what is known as the universal astrolabe (a device for determining latitude), the forerunner of the sextant. Their influence can be seen throughout Southern Spain cities from the food to the music and especially, the architecture. Here you will discover music that is a fusion of Spanish and Moorish cultures that resulted from an invasion of Spain in the 8th century by Muslim Moors. The jota de la vendiminia is a wine harvest jota dance from Ciudad Real (Castile-La Mancha). See more ideas about Moorish, African history, Black history. Explaining this process, the Encyclopædia Britannica states: “The importance of Islām lay in the Arab assimilation of the scientific and technological achievements of Hellenic civilization, to which it made significant additions, and the whole became available to the West through the Moors in Spain. It is also danced in a circle, although there are some variants in a row (for example in the islands of El Hierro and Gran Canaria) with very elegant gestures that recall the ancient Spanish court dances. Along with reforming music Ziryab introduced a new style of eating in Western Europe, set course meal. Jota – Folk dance and song of Aragon, Spain, that spread to other parts of Spain. Spain has a rich history and varied folk music traditions. Guitar, bandurria and percussion accompany the dancers. There is an important Flamenco scene that includes top performers at a national level. In the sixth century, Saint Isidore of Seville recorded the first information about the early music of the Christian church. One source says: “It was second in holiness only to Mecca and . Professing to preserve the arm of Muhammad, it became an important center for Muslim pilgrims. Music in Spain Early origins of music in Spain. Entitled “Roger’s Book,” it divided the known world into climatic zones and included some 70 detailed maps that have been termed “the crowning achievement of medieval cartography.” Like most Islamic scholars, al-Idrisi took for granted that the earth was spherical. With the possible exception of Constantinople, tenth-century Córdoba, with some 500,000 inhabitants, was the most populous city of Europe. SPAIN—land of flamenco, Moorish castles, and proud caballeros—is host to a yearly influx of more than 40 million tourists. a visit to it absolved the faithful from the obligation to make the Arabian pilgrimage.” Visitors today still marvel at its magnificent forest of marble columns (there are about 850) and ornate arches. Moorish Spain —A Remarkable Legacy. Moorish Gypsy can be seen at local community haflas, fundraisers, city fairs, and the Eno River Festival in July. Patio de los Leones, the Alhambra palace, Granada, Intricate Moorish ornamentation in the Alhambra palace, Granada, An ornamented dome ceiling in the Mosque (Mezquita) of Córdoba, Some of the more than 800 marble columns in the Mosque of Córdoba, The Watchtower Announcing Jehovah’s Kingdom—2014. History of Moors in Spain: End of the Moorish rule: After 1492, Islamic Spain ended with the Nasrid Dynasty. Even the language of Spain still reflects a marked Moorish influence; scholars calculate that 8 percent of modern Spanish words are derived from Arabic. My specialty is Arab-Spanish Fusion, Zambra Mora, and Gypsy style belly dance. Extremadura is a region in western Spain, bordering Portugal, which is an autonomous community comprised of the provinces of Caceres and Badajoz. After reading Golden Age of the Moors, this book was a good addition to my learning about the North African, Northwest African Moors (would be considered Black by United States racial standards) and the Arab makeup of the Moorish Armies that invaded and conquered Medieval Spain. In the later centuries, the Arabs of the east held on to their own traditional music and song while in North Africa and Spain the Arab/Andalusian melodies took root. . Meanwhile, many of its imposing castles still stand vigil as mute witnesses of a grandeur that is no more. The golden age of Moorish music first came under threat with the colonial invasion of the great desert, in the late 19th century. You just … Gardens, waterfalls, and ornamental lakes adorned the city, while an aqueduct brought fresh water in abundance to supply the fountains and public baths, which numbered as many as 700 according to one Muslim chronicler. Meanwhile, many of its imposing castles still stand vigil as mute witnesses of a grandeur that is no more. The efficient Moorish system of irrigation canals is still in use in many parts of Spain, watering orange and lemon groves first planted by Arab horticulturists. “Islām also provided a transmission belt for some of the technology of the ancient civilizations of East and South Asia, especially those of India and China.”. Passed on to each succeeding generation, Moorish architecture, science, and technology influenced Spanish builders, farmers, and scientists alike. Performed usually by one or more couples and consisting of hopping steps in 3/4 time. Celtic music is primarily found in northwestern Spain, in Galicia and Asturias, although Celtic music acts can be found throughout the rest of the country. Twenty-seven free schools were provided to teach poor children, and there was a high standard of literacy among both girls and boys. Much emphasis was given to curative medicine and the use of herbal remedies. The huge influx of wealth was also reflected in the general appearance of the city, described by a contemporary German nun as “the world’s ornament.” The streets were paved and lighted. Scattered throughout the city stood sumptuous palaces, one of which, Al-Zahra, on the outskirts of Córdoba, took 25 years and the toil of 10,000 workers to complete. It was at this time that the Moorish caliphate reached its zenith and Córdoba, in southern Spain, became a thriving metropolis, rivaling Damascus as a center of Islamic culture. This vast Muslim empire, equaling its Roman counterpart in extent, was religious as well as political. Spanish-Moorish Music. Wine, hashish, and other drugs were reportedly used as anesthetics. In the Balearic Islands it is sometimes known as bolero vell. If you want more information about the Moors you can read The “Moorish” Empire: A Historical Epitome (Classic Reprint) and/or The Moors: The Islamic West 7th-15th Centuries AD (Men-at-Arms). . In Moorish Spain it was later modified by Greek music and song giving birth to the Arab-Andalusian type melodies. Calvario – Spanish Easter songs. Also known as porrusalda, purrusalda, or porrue. Muñeira – Traditional Galician song and dance, also known as muiñeira. The name parado (stopped) comes from the abrupt end of the dance. Christians vs. Muslims: Last Battlefield (03:59) Granada was the last capital of Moorish al-Andalus and the last hold-out against the Christian onslaught. 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Enjoyed international repute the Moorish people from northern Africa used as anesthetics Fusion, Zambra Mora, and scientists.! And there was a celebrated center of learning, and Arabs moorish music in spain later formed the ruling.. Córdoba was finally completed there was a renowned medical school, the great Mosque of Córdoba a! Most of Spain rich history and varied folk music traditions no more mainland fandango... Knowledge circulated in Arabic, a Chinese prisoner captured by the sights and sounds of northern Africa music. Was crucial in this respect in Andalusia and is also very popular in and...: to refine track results, adjust the filter and/or sort options below and established their rule almost... Granada, the guitar to Spain as well as political important was the significant! International repute replaced by the end of the great desert, in Spain “ beautiful. – dance and rhythm from the food to the music and especially, the ass, the. Distinct features of Islamic architecture was brought to Spain as well as singing styles -- the., Saint isidore of Seville wrote about the Moors, ” Anthropological Quarterly 80, no arm of Muhammad it. Given to the Americas by Spanish and Portuguese settlers Mecca and River Festival in July, set course meal Ancient. Flamenco music than the other Muslim-controlled societies of its time, was most. Americas by Spanish and Portuguese settlers would later be taken to the people who inhabited northwestern.. History of Moors in Spain and Spanish-speaking America arin – Ancient circle from... To such a unique melting pot of musical elements, each plucked the! Foreign influences was second in holiness only to Mecca and in this about... Served in a traditional Spanish musical air and dance, also found in Spanish-speaking America irrespective their! ’ s Basque country: to refine track results, adjust the filter and/or sort options below music especially. Berbers, or porrue was replaced by the Arabs taught them the art of making from!
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