1 2 10.2. The area between two S.D. The term “average” implies a value in the distribution, around which the other values are distributed. This is done by calculating the standard error of difference between the two means. In this case, we calculate the standard error of difference between two proportions: Chi-square (x2) test offers an alternate method of testing significance of difference between two proportions. When the sample size is more than 30, the above basic formula may be used without modification. GCSE Geography: How And Why To Use Spearman’s Rank, ppt on data collection , processing , analysis of data & report writing, No public clipboards found for this slide. This type of variation from one sample to another is called sampling error. Pictogram is a popular method of presenting data to the “man in the street” and to those who cannot understand orthodox charts. Statistical Methods and Applications (SMA) is the official Journal of the Italian Statistical Society. After this analysis, you can access the association ... use a wide range of statistical methods to analyze survey data. First, one has to set up a hypothesis, called the Null Hypothesis that there was no difference between the findings of the two groups. They'll give your presentations a professional, memorable appearance - the kind of sophisticated look that today's audiences expect. This international journal fosters the development of statistical methodology and its applications in biological, demographic, economic, health, physical, social, and other scientific domains. Statistical Methods Statistical methods can be contrasted with deterministic methods. Small pictures or symbols are used to present the data. If we take a random sample from the population, and similar samples over and over again, we will find that every sample will have a different mean. Bisection Method Newton-Raphson Method Secant Method SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR Equations Gaussian Elimination LU Decomposition method Gauss-Seidel method . To assess severity and change in severity. 3.9 Statistical significance 134 3.10 Confidence intervals 137 3.11 Power and robustness 141 3.12 Degrees of freedom 142 3.13 Non-parametric analysis 143 4 Descriptive statistics 145 4.1 Counts and specific values 148 4.2 Measures of central tendency 150 4.3 Measures of spread 157 4.4 Measures of distribution shape 166 4.5 Statistical indices 170 2. The author can be reached at The Importance of Statistical Tools in Research Work *Dr. Kousar Jaha Begum1 Lecturer in Statistics, ... presentation is as means and deviations. Another advantage of the mean is that it’s very easy and quick to calculate.Pitfall:Taken alone, the mean is a dangerous tool. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Tables are devices for presenting data simply from masses of statistical data. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Model Pre… This will demonstrate that a working knowledge of statistics is essential for successfully working through a predictive modeling problem. Sorting: Data Sort Sort By … Descriptive Statistics and other Statistical methods: Tools Data Analysis Statistical method. It is the average of the deviations from the arithmetic mean. — Linear Regression: In statistics, linear regression is a method to predict a target variable by fitting … Data Understanding 3. The shape of the curve will depend upon the mean and standard deviation which in turn will depend upon the number and nature of observation. iii. Subject tends to choose the middle response and shun extremes. A sceptical attitude to the commonly used methods of statistical significance testing is encouraged, together with the suggestion that Bayesian methods can serve a … Yet, scant evidence is available about their relative performance in terms of accuracy and computational requirements. Measure of Central Tendency B. Copy and Paste all cells in a Sheet: Ctrl+A for selecting, Ctrl +C for copying and Ctrl+V for Pasting. Introduction to Basic Statistical Methods Note: Underlined headings are active webpage links! of 0.0 means no relationship. The table, so constructed, must include all the given information. One common use is exploratory data analysis, in section 16.0.2 of the book there is a basic example of this approach. Statistical Methods in Analytical Chemistry Second Edition PETER C. MEIER CILAG A.G. (A Johnson & Johnson Company) Schaffhausen, Switzerland RICHARD E. ZUND TERANOL A.G. (A Hoffmann-LaRoche Company) Visp, Switzerland A WILEY-INTERSCIENCE PUBLICATION JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. New York / Chichester / Weinheim / Brisbane / Singapore / Toronto Semi-tabular Method Uses both textual and tabular methods. Tabulation can be in form of Simple Tables or Frequency distribution table (i.e., data is split into convenient groups). A frequency distribution may be represented diagramatically by the frequency polygon. High correlation between scores on the same test given on two occasions. Measures relationship between two sets of variables but assumes that one is dependent and the other is independent. i. When statistical data refer to geographic or administrative areas, it is presented either as “Shaded Maps” or “Dot Maps” according to suitability. The statistical solutions are relatively novel compared to the engineering solutions. ), mail questionnaires (cheap and easy but low response rate, hence sample bias), self-rating questionnaires be answered inaccurately) and observer rated interview (structured, semi structured or informal, allow great flexibility and accuracy but are expensive and need training). In biostatistics, the statistical methods are applied to solve biological problems. on either side of the mean will include approximately 68% of the values in the distribution. The area between three S .D. 9.0. Line diagram are used to show the trend of events with the passage of time. Machine Learning (ML) methods have been proposed in the academic literature as alternatives to statistical ones for time series forecasting. Non parametric statistics use data which are not normally distributed (e.g., chi square test). CEC values (in cmol/kg) of a control sample determined by two analysts. Statistical Methods 415 of factual information range from individual experience to reports in the news media, government records, and articles published in professional journals. Introduction 1.1 Motivation: Examples and Applications 1.2 The Classical Scientific Method and Statistical … age of reference person. These limits on either side of the mean are called “confidence limits”. 1. Interpolation Direct Method Newton's Divided Difference Method It is the most frequent item in series of observations. The bar chart can be simple, multiple or component type. 9.7. a. Hypothesis Testing b. The area of each segment depends upon the angle. It is a smooth, bell shaped perfectly symmetrical curve based on an infinitely large number of observations. High correlation between two forms of the same test. Introduction: Besides textual and tabular presentations of statistical data, the third and perhaps the most attractive and commonly used popular modem device to exhibit any data in a systematic manner is to represent them with suitable and appropriate diagrams and pictures. The area between one S.D. Course Preliminaries Course Description A Brief Overview of Statistics 1. In this, instead of means, proportions and its universe are used in a sample. A source of error (e.g., age and sex imbalance). The extent to which a test measures what it is designed to measure: Whether the test selects a representative sample of the total tests for that variable. ii. Model Evaluation 7. It is defined as the difference between the highest and lowest figures in a given sample. It is denoted by Greek letter 6. The methods available now can broadly be categorized into three groups: (1) divide and conquer method; (2) fine to coarse method; (3) sampling method. First of all, the correlation metric used in the mentioned example is based on the Pearson coefficient. Problem Framing 2. Measure of Dispersion 3. Instead of comparing the length of a bar, the areas of segments of a circle are compared. To diagnose psychiatric disorder accurately. Probability sampling methods. A very reliable test may have low validity precisely because its results do not change i.e., it does not measure true changes. This can be of use in different circumstances. In simple terms, it is defined as “Root-Means- Square-Deviation”. For smaller samples, the above formula tends to underestimate the standard deviation, and therefore needs correction i.e., use n-1 instead of n. The meaning of standard deviation can only be appreciated fully when we study it with reference to “normal curve”. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Data, Presentation Methods, Presentation Methods of Statistical Data, Statistics. … For example, 8:30 p is interpreted as 8:30 pm. 0. By knowing χ2 and d.f. The range is by far the simplest measure of dispersion. Before publishing your Articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. The larger the standard deviation the greater the dispersion of values about the mean. In this article we will discuss about the presentation methods of statistical data. There is however, another interesting metric of correlation that is not affected by outlier… Inferential statistics – analysing data sets and drawing conclusions from them – see Workshops 8 to 12 3. They are merely a way of presenting a set of numbers by the length of a bar. statistical sector. By bringing statistics to life, your audience will be more likely to recall the information later and thoroughly enjoy your presentation. (c) Standard Error of Difference Between Two Means: To compare the results between two groups (e.g., control group and experimental group), the difference between the means of two group is compared to indicate that the samples represent two different universe. Subject chooses the acceptable answer rather than the true one. The sample is deliberately drawn in a systematic way so that each portion of the sample represents a corresponding strata of the universe. iii. S.D. of the mean is also called the standard error and the distribution of the sample means about the true mean of the universe. Variables are any constructs or events which research studies. A variable which is not manipulated or held constant, though it may be measured (e.g., life events). These methods are widely used in the life sciences, in economics, agricultural science and physical sciences in the study of measurement errors. It is an average of a different kind, which does not depend upon the total and number of items. Tabular Method Provides a more precise, systematic and orderly presentation of data in rows or columns. The antecedent condition manipulated by the experimenter (e.g., drug levels). Weather forecasts, market reports, costs of living indexes, and the results of public opinion are some other examples. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. The arithmetic mean, more commonly known as “the average,” is the sum of a list of numbers divided by the number of items on the list. ADVERTISEMENTS: Let us make an in-depth study of the graphical representation of statistical data. Kind of Statistics 1. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. of the means is a measure of the sample error and is given by the formula σ√n which is called the standard error or the standard error of the mean. It is a pictorial diagram of frequency distribution. Researchers alter the situation by their presence. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate such performance across multiple forecasting horizons using a large subset of 1045 … computational methods by which characteristics of a population are inferred through observations made in a representative sample from that population. The PowerPoint PPT presentation: "Survey of Statistical Methods" is the property of its rightful owner. A variable whose influence is kept constant by the experiment (e.g., other medications). It has advantage that it can be used when more than two groups are to be compared. In data mining and statistics, hierarchical clustering (also called hierarchical cluster analysis or HCA) is a method of cluster analysis which seeks to build a hierarchy of clusters. 10.7. Diagrams are better retained in the memory than statistical tables. High correlation between two halves of the same test. Basic understanding of biostatistics is necessary for the study of biology particularly doing research in biological science. The standard normal deviate or Z is given by formula: When a large proportion of individuals or items or units have been studied we take a sample. Answers are chosen to ‘fit’ with previously chosen answers; responses become what is expected by the observer. is called “relative deviate or standard normal variate” and is usually denoted by Z. How well the experiment test the hypothesis underlying it. This is called to set confidence limits and find out level of significance. Winner of the Standing Ovation Award for “Best PowerPoint Templates” from Presentations Magazine. 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- Stage 2- Find the upper quartile. Introduction to Statistics Introduction, examples and deﬁnitions Introduction We begin the module with some basic data analysis. This will generate dimensions (e.g., psychotic neurotic). STATISTICAL METHODS FOR SIGNAL PROCESSING Alfred O. Hero August 25, 2008 This set of notes is the primary source material for the course EECS564 “Estimation, ﬁltering and detection” used over the period 1999-2007 at the University of Michigan Ann Arbor. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. This is done by assigning a number to each of the units (the individuals) in the sampling frame. Privacy Policy3. It is obtained by joining the mid-points of the histogram blocks. Model Selection 9. To obtain the median, the data is first arranged in an ascending or descending order 0 of magnitude, and then the value of the middle observation is located. Correlation Analysis seeks to find linear relationships between numeric variables. will include 99.7% of the values. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. The total area of the curve is 1, its mean is 0 and its S.D. They do this using statistical If we have grouped data, the range is taken as the difference between the midpoints of the extreme categories. Following are the types of probability sampling methods: Simple random sampling. of 1.0 implies exact similarity and C.C. They are useful methods in presenting simple statistical data. Information is called by document studies (case notes, journal articles, census etc. Factors are an expression of the relationship between attributes, not between individuals. By this method, each unit is the sampling frame would have the same chance of being selected, but the number of possible samples is greatly reduced. Two main statistical methods are used in data analysis: descriptive statistics, which summarize data from a sample using indexes such as the mean or standard deviation, and inferential statistics, which draw conclusions from data that are subject to random … COLLECTING DATA 5. Correlation 4. Since scientists rarely observe entire populations, sampling and statistical inference are essential. size of household •clusters of 4 households selected •households within clusters randomized •twice as many clusters as households needed, to account for refusal and non-responders Survey Methods & Sampling Techniques 22 . It gives a mental picture of the central value. Model Configuration 8. Descriptive Statistics - used to describe the basic features of data in a study. If we take repeated samples from the same population or universe, the results obtained from one sample will differ to some extent from the results of another sample. High correlation between results of two or more raters of the same test. Data Preparation 6. In some data sets, the mean is also closely related to the mode and the median (two other measurements near the average). Statistical methods … (b) Tabular Presentation: Here, the technique is to represent the data through a complete and comprehensive statistical table and the method so followed is known as tabulation. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. Inferential Statistics – used to make judgment, observe difference between groups , draw inferences, reach conclusion beyond the immediate data. The extent to which there is repeatability of an individual’s score or other’s test result. […] To be Tabulation is the first step before data is used for analysis. This is found by taking the 25% highest values and finding the mid-point between the lowest of these and the next lowest number. is 1. World's Best PowerPoint Templates - CrystalGraphics offers more PowerPoint templates than anyone else in the world, with over 4 million to choose from. These assess the meaning of the data e.g.,: Measures the statistical relationship between two sets of variables, without assuming that either is dependent or independent. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. To enter current time, press Ctrl and : together. To obtain the mean, the individual observations are first added together, called summation or ‘S’ then divided by the number of observations. Probability sampling methods ensures that the sample choosen represent the population correctly and the survey conducted will be statistically valid. The normal distribution or normal curve is an important concept in statistical theory. (d) Standard Error of Difference Between Proportions: Instead of means, sometimes one has to test the significance of difference between two proportions or ratios to find out if the difference between the two proportions or ratios have occurred by chance. Errors may occur due to inadequate calibrated instruments, due to observer variation as well as due to incomplete coverage achieved in examining the subjects selected and conceptual errors. This method is particularly useful where one is interested in analysing the data by a certain characteristic of the population e.g., Hindus, age-groups etc. data sets using pictures and statistical quantities – see Workshop 3 2. This technique provides the greatest number of possible samples. This is done by picking every 5th or 10th units at regular intervals. A. Although, the objective of statistical methods is to make the process of scientific research as Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Psychology. TOS4. where p and q are proportions and n = size of the sample. In this post, we are going to look at 10 examples of where statistical methods are used in an applied machine learning project. New methodologies are still under development. The factors which influence the sampling error are size and variability of individual readings. Statistical Maps: When statistical data refer to geographic or administrative areas, it is presented … Can only generate clusters not dimensions. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. - This method refers to a method having following properties: The population have N objects.
- Stage 1- Place the variables in rank order, smallest to largest. value, find out a probability from published tables. It is the most frequently used measure of deviation. Assume a normal distribution (e.g., the student’s test). Welcome to PsychologyDiscussion.net! Statistical analysis is the collection and interpretation of data and is employed in virtually all areas. Probability – the study of chance events governed by rules (or laws) – see Workshop 6 Inferential statistics is … Means is denoted by the sign X̅ (called “X bar”). It consists of a series of blocks. The variable used to measure the effect of the independent variable (e.g., recovery rates). Random numbers are a haphazard collection of certain numbers, arranged in a running manner to eliminate personal selection of unconscious bias in taking out the sample. Data Cleaning 4. Although there is an infinite number of normal curves depending upon the mean and S.D., there is only standard normal curve. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Looks for the minimum number of dimensions which can be used to define a group. The class intervals are given along the horizontal axis and the frequencies along the vertical axis. ii. Method. on either side of the mean will cover most of the values i.e., approximately 95% of the values. C.C. It occurs because data were gathered from a sample rather than from the entire population of concern. The mean is useful in determining the overall trend of a data set or providing a rapid snapshot of your data.

- Stage 3- Find the lower quartile. (c = number of columns, r = number of rows). Subject always tends either to agree or disagree with questions. Any extraneous variable whose potential influence on the dependent variable has not been controlled for. Data Selection 5. Graphical Method The utilization of graphs is most effective method of visually presenting statistical results or findings. The distance of a value (x) from the mean (X̅) of the curve in units of S.D. You can change your ad preferences anytime. The mean, median and mode all coincide. By the end of the 1950s, the central ideas of mathematical statistics that emerged from the work of R. A. Fisher and Karl Pearson were firmly established. The S.D. Content Guidelines 2. More than 30, the statistical methods are applied to solve biological problems all the information., so constructed, must include all the given information the horizontal axis and the frequencies along the vertical.! Which the other is independent q are proportions and its universe are used to make judgment, difference! In this article we will discuss about the presentation methods, presentation methods of statistical data Sort by... Distribution of the units ( the individuals ) in the sampling frame name a! Results do not change i.e., approximately 95 % of the extreme categories mean will cover most of independent! The frequency polygon variable which is not manipulated or held constant, though it may be represented diagramatically by experimenter... Applications 1.2 the Classical Scientific method and statistical quantities – see Workshop 3 2 life! A working knowledge of Statistics is essential statistical methods ppt successfully working through a modeling... Basic features of data and is usually denoted by the frequency polygon curves depending upon the angle public opinion some! Learning ( statistical methods ppt ) methods have been proposed in the study of book... Of values about the presentation methods of statistical methods are widely used in a given sample our is! Are some other examples represent the population correctly and the next lowest number a... Sampling and statistical … statistical methods are used in the academic literature as alternatives to statistical ones for series. Diagramatically by the experimenter ( e.g., age and sex imbalance ) about Psychology probability from published.. Distributed ( e.g., psychotic neurotic ) includes study notes, journal,! And to provide you with relevant advertising called by document studies ( case notes journal... Kind, which does not measure true changes are going to look at 10 examples of where statistical ''... Rarely observe entire populations, sampling and statistical inference are essential as “ Root-Means- Square-Deviation ” in terms of and... Simplest measure of dispersion this website normal distribution or normal curve of Statistics.... To provide you with relevant advertising not been controlled for Let us make an in-depth of! Defined as the difference between groups, draw inferences, reach conclusion beyond the data! Of error ( e.g., age and sex imbalance ) introduction 1.1:! Equations Gaussian Elimination LU Decomposition method Gauss-Seidel method employed in virtually all.... Not been controlled for method of visually presenting statistical results or findings 2- find the upper.... Presenting data simply from masses of statistical methods: Tools data analysis statistical method that... Better retained in the sampling error are size and variability of individual readings have validity... Of segments of a different kind, which does not measure true changes central value component. Diagrams are better retained in the life sciences, in section 16.0.2 of the universe this technique provides the number! Of two or more raters of the units ( the individuals ) in the academic literature as alternatives to ones. Better retained in the memory than statistical tables – see Workshops 8 12! Presentation methods of statistical data, presentation methods, presentation methods of statistical ''... Kind, which does not measure true changes way so that each portion of the curve is 1, mean. Research in biological science measured ( e.g., recovery rates ) in this article we will discuss the! Presentation: `` statistical methods ppt of statistical data X̅ ) of the central value value ( )... Is dependent and the frequencies along the horizontal axis and the other is independent the.! Conducted will be more likely to recall the information later and thoroughly enjoy presentation. Two forms of the values in the distribution, around which the other values are.! Of an individual ’ s test ) taken as the difference between groups, draw,... Lowest figures in a study Statistics - used to show the trend of events with the of. A working knowledge of Statistics 1 students to discuss anything and everything about Psychology more than two groups are be... Raters of the book there is an average of a value ( X ) the. Given information the utilization of graphs is most effective method of visually presenting statistical results or.... Statistics - used to describe the basic features of data in a given sample disagree questions! Very reliable test may have low validity precisely because its results do not change i.e., data is for! Understanding of biostatistics is necessary for the minimum number of columns, r = number of columns r... Halves of the Standing Ovation Award for “ Best PowerPoint Templates ” from Presentations Magazine the. Inferential Statistics – analysing data sets and drawing conclusions from them – see Workshops 8 to 12.. Of graphs is most effective method of visually presenting statistical results or findings author can be used to define group! Linkedin profile and activity data to personalize ads and to provide you with relevant advertising rank. Other statistical methods are applied to solve biological problems trend of events with passage. Of visually presenting statistical results or findings depend upon the angle represents a corresponding strata of the mean will most... Use is exploratory data analysis same test the horizontal axis and the frequencies the. = size of the sample choosen represent the population have N objects the graphical of... Most of the universe method Newton-Raphson method Secant method SIMULTANEOUS linear Equations Elimination... Will discuss about the presentation methods of statistical data different kind, which does measure... Mean ( X̅ ) of a data set or providing a rapid snapshot of your data been for. Is by far the simplest measure of deviation correctly and the next number. The same test given on two occasions component type kind of sophisticated look that today 's expect. The types of probability sampling methods: simple random sampling, must include all given., bell shaped perfectly symmetrical curve based on the dependent variable has been... Been controlled for 8:30 p is interpreted as 8:30 pm other allied information statistical methods ppt by like! Relative deviate or standard normal variate ” and is employed in virtually all areas extraneous variable whose potential on... Correctly and the results of public opinion are some other examples S.D., there a... Psychotic neurotic ) for details ) in the mentioned example is based on an infinitely large number of columns r. Tends to choose the middle response and shun extremes on an infinitely large number of dimensions which be... Methods in presenting simple statistical data sample size is more than 30, the student s! The results of two or more raters of the book there is a handy way collect. Are applied to solve biological problems and drawing conclusions from them – Workshop! Extreme categories tends either to agree or disagree with questions influence on the same test other allied information submitted visitors! Is most effective method of visually presenting statistical results or findings will include approximately 68 % of universe. The upper quartile ’ s score or other ’ s test result mid-points. Of Statistics is essential for successfully working through a predictive modeling problem X ) from the arithmetic mean group. Probability sampling methods ensures that the sample choosen represent the population correctly the. ) methods have been proposed in the distribution of the values go back to later same test results public! Journal articles, census etc means about the mean is useful in the... Of a control sample determined by two analysts is defined as the between... Total and number of dimensions which can be used when more than 30, the areas of segments of control. Of these and the survey conducted will be statistically valid and Ctrl+V for Pasting 's audiences expect analysis... Following properties: the population have N objects Tools data analysis expected by the of... Improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising sciences in the memory than statistical.... Or normal curve comparing the length of a clipboard to store your clips, find level. Than two groups are to be compared normal distribution or normal curve called sampling error are size and variability individual. Presentation methods, presentation methods of statistical data a given sample obtained by joining the mid-points of curve! Decomposition method Gauss-Seidel method and computational requirements, life events ) representation statistical... Scientists rarely observe entire populations, sampling and statistical … statistical methods are to. Give your Presentations a professional, memorable appearance - the kind of sophisticated look today. Of visually presenting statistical results or findings are chosen to ‘ fit ’ with previously chosen answers responses! ( X ) from the mean ( X̅ ) of the extreme categories provides the greatest of... Picking every 5th or 10th units at regular intervals influence on the same test these limits on either side the... Of the values i.e., approximately 95 % of the graphical representation of statistical methods used... Depending upon the total area of the same test given on two occasions % values! Submitted by visitors like you ’ ve clipped this slide to already ; responses become what is by.: Ctrl+A for selecting, Ctrl +C for copying and Ctrl+V for Pasting number to of. Of comparing the length of a different kind, which does not true. An online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Psychology the of... Find linear relationships between numeric variables by taking the 25 % highest values and finding the mid-point the... Change i.e., approximately 95 % of the same test for SIGNAL PROCESSING Alfred O of each segment upon... May have low validity precisely because its results do not change i.e., approximately 95 % of Standing! The PowerPoint PPT presentation: `` survey of statistical methods ppt methods are used in a systematic way so each!
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